Difference Between 3G and 4G Technology (with Comparison Chart, Architecture, Advantages and Limitations)

WRITTEN BY: supportmymoto.com STAFF

3G and 4G might be differentiated regarding expertise compliance, information switch rate, capability, IP structure and variety of connections, and so on. 3G stands for third technology through which optimized cell are developed for enabling information and broadband providers with higher connectivity. 4G LTE stands for 4th technology which delivers extra capability for faster and improvised cell broadband experiences and permitting extra connections.

3G and 4G expertise are related to cell communication requirements. Cellular Communications is without doubt one of the continuously creating areas to ship quicker and higher cell broadband experiences. Every new expertise gives the numerous development in efficiency and capabilities in comparison with its predecessor. It offers the power to entry the web over completely different units like tab, laptop computer, desktop and cellphones.

Content material: 3G Expertise Vs 4G Expertise

  1. Comparability Chart
  2. Definition
  3. Key Variations
  4. Structure
  5. Benefits
  6. Limitations
  7. Conclusion

Comparability Chart

Foundation for Comparability 3G Expertise 4G Expertise
Information Bandwidth 2 Mbps – 21 Mbps 2 Mbps – 1 Gbps
Peak Add Rate 5 Mbps 500 Mbps
Peak Obtain Rate 21 Mbps 1 Gbps
Switching Method Packet Switching Packet Switching,
Message Switching
Requirements IMT 2000
3.5G HSDPA
3.75G HSUPA
Single Unified normal Wimax and LTE
Expertise
Stack
Digital Broadband Packet Information CDMA 2000, UMTS, EDGE and so on. Digital Broadband Packet Information Wimax2 and LTE Advances.
Frequency Band 1.8 – 2.5 GHz 2 – 8 GHz
Community Structure Vast Space Cell Based mostly Integration of Wi-fi LAN and Vast Space
Ahead Error Correction 3G makes use of turbo codes for error correction. Concatenated codes are used for error correction in 4G.
Handoff Horizontal Horizontal and Vertical

Definition of 3G Expertise

3G is a technology of requirements for cell telecommunication providers that satisfies the Worldwide Cellular Telecommunications -2000 (IMT-2000) offers the power to switch voice and information (music downloads, emails and on the spot messaging) over the identical community concurrently.

It delivers broadband capability, helps bigger variety of voice and information prospects of decrease incremental value than its predecessor 2G. 3G makes use of Circuit switching for voice communication, and Packet switching for Information Communication.

Most information switch charges supported by 3G:

  • 2.05 Mbits/second for stationary units.
  • 384 Kbits/second for units shifting at a sluggish tempo.
  • 128 Kbits/second for units shifting at excessive pace.

FORMATION OF 3GPP

3GPP (third Era Partnership Undertaking) was developed throughout formation of governing our bodies which included the collaboration of each GSM and UMTS. 3GPP was working underneath commentary of ITU-R (Worldwide Telecommunication Union-radiocommunication sector) one of many sectors of ITU.

It’s chargeable for managing the worldwide radio frequency spectrum, to make sure the environment friendly use of spectrum and defines expertise households, associates particular elements of the spectrum with the households.

ITU lastly ratified a household of 5 3G requirements that are a part of the 3G framework generally known as IMT-2000, after attempting to construct a single 3G normal:

  • Three requirements primarily based on CDMA (Code Division A number of Entry), specifically:
    1. CDMA2000
    2. WCDMA (Wideband Code Division A number of Entry)/HSPA+ (Excessive-Pace Packet Entry)
    3. TDSCDMA.
  • Two requirements primarily based on primarily based on TDMA(Time Division A number of Entry), specifically:
    1. FDMA/TDMA
    2. TDMA-SC(EDGE).
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Definition of 4G Expertise

4G stands for 4th Era Expertise, and it’s a enterprise to develop, incorporate the present 2G (2nd Era), 3G (third Era), WLAN (Wi-fi Native Space Community), short-range, fastened wire methods right into a single and broadcast, solely useful, constant and coherent internetwork.

It’s an extension of 3G expertise which offers capabilities outlined by ITU (Worldwide Telecommunications Union) in IMT (Worldwide Cellular Telecommunications) consists of options like scalability, flexibility, effectivity, self-governance, safety to assist interfacing with several types of networks and a mess of recent and present providers.

It gives fully converged customised providers (voice, information and multimedia) at information charges of as much as 100 Mbps and pervasive cell entry for:

  • Excessive-resolution cell tv
  • IP telephony
  • Gaming providers
  • Video conferencing
  • 3D tv

The improved variations of present applied sciences cowl GSM, GPRS, CDMA, IMT-2000, W-CDMA, CDMAone, Wi-fi LANs and Bluetooth are built-in into 4G. The high-quality audio/video streaming over finish to finish Web Protocol is anticipated.

Variations of Cellular LTE (Lengthy Time period Evolution) and WiMAX (Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Entry) in unison assist a lot lower than 1 Gbit/s peak bit rate, are branded 4G by service suppliers, however there isn’t a full IMT-Superior compliance.

The primary purpose of 4G LTE was to attain excessive mobility and international connectivity.

The IP Core community is developed additional to assist excessive information charges, superior utility providers and administration of IP and radio community extra effectively and has far more exacting necessities.

The unfold spectrum radio expertise which was utilized in 3G is changed by:

  • OFDMA (Orthogonal Frequency Division A number of Entry) multi-carrier transmission.
  • FDE (Frequency-Area Equalization) stratagem.

Because of this, it transfers very excessive bit charges with out being affected by immense multipath radio propagation.

For MIMO (A number of-Enter A number of-Output) communications, peak bit rate is additional enhanced through the use of good antenna arrays. Larger order modulation as much as 64 QAM and MBMS (Multimedia Broadcast Multicast providers) for broadcasting is used.

Key Variations Between 3G and 4G Expertise

The  factors coated beneath presents the distinction between 3G and 4G expertise:

  1. In terms of information bandwidth 3G offers 21 Mbps and 4G gives 1 Gbps most information bandwidth.
  2. The utmost importing rate of 3G is 5 Mbps whereas 500 Mbps is the very best importing rate of 4G.
  3.  The very best obtain rate of 3G is 21 Mbps. As in opposition to 4G gives 1Gbps peak obtain rate.
  4. 3G makes use of packet switching for information transmission. However, each packet and message switching are utilized in 4G.
  5. In 4G, Hybrid community structure is used. Conversely, 3G makes use of vast space cell primarily based community.
  6. CDMA is employed in 3G. As in opposition to, 4G utilises OFDMA (Orthogonal Frequency Division A number of Entry).
  7. Handoff administration is completed vertically in 3G, however in 4G it’s accomplished vertically in addition to horizontally.
  8. Full IP primarily based Community is supported in 4G. Nonetheless, in case of 3G, it’s circuit and packet primarily based.
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3G/UMTS Structure

The Constituent elements of 3G UMTS community are

Cellular Station: It could possibly be something like information and voice-enabled cellphones, tabs or computer systems which could possibly be used as an finish consumer.

RAN (Radio Entry Community): It consists of base stations and radio entry controller which bridges the hole between Cellular Station and Core Community. It additionally controls and manages the air interface for the entire community.

CN (Core Community): It offers the primary processing and administration of subsystems. The 3G UMTS community Structure is migrated from GSM with some enhancements in core community parts.

3G ArchitectureThe core community is assessed into two elements i.e. Circuit Switched Area and Packet-switched area.

  1. Circuit Switched Area: It makes use of Circuit Switched Community through which devoted hyperlink or channel is offered for a specific time slot to set of customers. The 2 blocks proven in Circuit Switched Area are:
    • MSC: Cellular Switching Centre manages circuit switched calls.
    • GMSC: Gateway MSC acts as an middleman between exterior and inner networks.
  2. Packet-switched area: It makes use of IP Community the place IP’s are chargeable for transmitting and receiving information amongst two or extra units. The 2 blocks proven in Packet Switched Area are:
    • SGSN(Serving GPRS Assist Node): The varied capabilities offered by SGSN are mobility administration, session administration, billing, communication with different areas of the community.
    • GGSN(Gateway GPRS Assist Node): It may be thought-about as a really complicated router and handles the interior operations between the exterior packet switched networks and UMTS packet switched community.
  • IMS(IP Multimedia Subsystem): It’s an Architectural framework which provides IP multimedia providers.

4G LTE Structure

The Constituent elements of 4G LTE community are

  • Consumer Gear (UE): It could possibly be any machine able to establishing communication capabilities like cellphones, tabs, computer systems, and so on.
  • Developed UMTS Terrestrial Radio Entry Community (E-UTRAN): It controls radio communication between consumer tools and EPC. LTE cell can join with only one cell and one base station at a time. Predominant operations carried out by EBS(Developed Base Station)
    • Analog and digital processing capabilities of LTE air interface are used to transmit and obtain radio transmission to all of the LTE-enabled units.
    • Handles low-level operation by sending the signalling messages and instructions.
  • Developed Packet Core (EPC): It communicates with inner and exterior packet information networks and IP multimedia subsystem. It consists of following blocks:
    • HSS: Dwelling Subscriber Server holds all of the details about all of the community operator’s subscribers in a central database.
    • MME: Mobility Administration Entity handles the high-level operation by the signalling messages and HSS.
    • S-GW: Signaling Gateway performs mobility anchoring and ahead information between PDN Gateway and Base Station.
    • P-GW:Packet Information Community Gateway communicates with PDN’s using interfaces. It performs operations like IP tackle allocation and packet filtering.
    • PCRF: Coverage and Charging Rule Perform is accountable for controlling the flow-based charging operations within the Coverage Management Enforcement Perform (PCEF) and coverage management decision-making.
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4G Architecture

Benefits of 3G

  • It employs 2G frequency bands with bandwidths as much as 230MHz are used to attain international roaming and multi-services.
  • Wideband radio channel to assist high-speed services- Radio provider channel makes use of bandwidth as much as 20M which improvises chip rate and anti-multipath fading.
  • Within the broadband channel, the standard of enterprise might be managed by making use of time multiplexing and code reuse. Totally different spreading elements, varied charges want of various QOS can map into the broadband channel are chosen to grasp multi-service and multi-rate transmission.
  • To enhance the efficiency of the downlink transmission channel quick closed loop energy management expertise is utilized.
  • To adaptively modify the facility, decrease the system self-interference and improve receiver sensitivity and enhance the system capability, Adaptive antenna arrays are carried out to the 3G base station.
    WCDMA, primarily comprised of the next two points i.e. Channel coding and energy management.
  • Switching expertise is required for communication of terminal and cell networks when terminals aren’t regular and switching its place from the protection of 1 base station to one in all one other base station.

Benefits of 4G

  • Diminished delays for each connection institution and transmission latency.
  • Elevated consumer Information Throughput.
  • Elevated cell edge bit rate.
  • Minimized value per bit using enhanced spectral effectivity.
  • Simplified community structure.
  • Seamless Mobility together with between completely different Radio entry expertise.
  • Cheap energy consumption for the cell machine.
  • Minimises tools value because it abolishes want of pricey frequency equaliser at receiver.
  • It offers built-in safety providers.

Limitations of 3G

  • The price of mobile infrastructure, upgrading base stations could be very excessive.
  • Roaming and information/voice work collectively has not but been carried out.
  • Energy utilisation is excessive.
  • Wants brief distance base stations and are costly.

Limitations of 4G

  • Location coordination and useful resource coordination so as to add new units is just not enough.
  • Restricted voice calls and providers might be dealt with a time.
  • Being a concentrated information service, it requires broad bandwidth.
  • It doesn’t present good providers in rural areas as a result of requirement of the wi-fi community and 4G community isn’t expanded effectively in these areas.

Conclusion

4G applied sciences offers higher providers as in comparison with 3G applied sciences; by way of information throughput, cell edge bit rate, value, mobility, energy consumption for cell units. Nonetheless, there are some compatibility points in 4G.


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